Recent Studies Link Antiretroviral Therapies to a Decrease in HIV Virulence

A recent study has identified a potential evolutionary mechanism in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the leading cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), that may reduce its pathogenicity. Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States , this was reported by a paediatrics research group in the University of Oxford in October this year.

 

 

HIV (3)

 

The researchers looked at the genetic background of the HIV virus in Pregnant women Botswana and South Africa, two countries that have thought to be the worst affected by HIV.

Outcomes:

  • Some significant results were found, which showed that the HIV virus had adapted to HLA, or human leukocyte antigen a cluster of genes, which has a large role in immune regulation
  • With this adaptation, the virulence (the capacity of a virus to cause a disease) was decreased, due to HLA sensitivity being able to enclose the viral attack. This is believed to be a payoff mechanism in order for viral survival and continual transmission to other agents, as is seen and predicted in epidemics. Nearing the end of an epidemic, a pathogen will typically prioritise infecting new hosts, which requires lengthening the host’s life expectancy and thus increasing the prospect of transfection to another host
  • This was found to be more effective in South Africa in comparison to Botswana, which could be further explored in other African countries with the aim of infection control and treatment

 

The Role of Antiretrovirals

  • An alternative theory proposed for the cause in potential reduction of severity was the more common use of antiretroviral therapies used today
  • According to the World Health Organisation’s antiretroviral guidelines published in June 2013, first line treatment of HIV for an adult is a cocktail of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors along one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Antiretroviral monotherapy is not advised to prevent the risk of drug resistance
  • Antiretroviral therapies have significantly extended the lifespan of HIV patients as an AIDs prophylactic agent. With good compliance, a patient can have a good quality of life as well as a much longer life expectancy

 

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2014/11/26/1413339111.full.pdf+html

http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/guidelines/arv2013/art/artadults/en/
Recent Studies Link Antiretroviral Therapies to a Decrease in HIV Virulence – Taj Dearob Pharma | A recent study has identified a potential evolutionary mechanism in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the leading cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), that may reduce its pathogenicity. Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States , this was reported by a paediatrics research group in the University of Oxford in October this year.
Recent Studies Link Antiretroviral Therapies to a Decrease in HIV Virulence – Taj Dearob Pharma | A recent study has identified a potential evolutionary mechanism in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the leading cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), that may reduce its pathogenicity. Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States , this was reported by a paediatrics research group in the University of Oxford in October this year.
Recent Studies Link Antiretroviral Therapies to a Decrease in HIV Virulence – Taj Dearob Pharma | A recent study has identified a potential evolutionary mechanism in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the leading cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), that may reduce its pathogenicity. Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States , this was reported by a paediatrics research group in the University of Oxford in October this year.
Recent Studies Link Antiretroviral Therapies to a Decrease in HIV Virulence – Taj Dearob Pharma | A recent study has identified a potential evolutionary mechanism in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the leading cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), that may reduce its pathogenicity. Published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of the United States , this was reported by a paediatrics research group in the University of Oxford in October this year.